Binaa al Afaal 30 Mulhaq to Tadahraja 2 جَوْرَبَ, يُجَوْرَبُ

December 8, 2013

 

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Binaa al Afaal 30

 

البَابُ الثَانِي

The second type (of mulhaq to tadahraja) is

تَفَوْعَلَ, يَتَفَوْعَلُ, تَفَوْعُلًا

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

تَجَوْرَبَ, يَتَجَوْرَبُ, تَجَوْرُبًا to put socks on (yourself)

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has five letters

بِزِيَادَةِ التَّاءِ فِي أَوَّلِهِ

Being increased by a “taa” in the beginning of it

وَالوَاوِ بَيْنَ الفَاءِ والعَيْنِ

As well as by a “wow” و between the first and second root letters

وَبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

لِلَّازِمِ

Is for intransitivity

نَحْوُ

For example

تَجَوْرَبَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid put on socks.”

Translator’s Note:

Al-Haazimee said1:

هذا هو المشهور عند الصرفيين ، لكن بعضهم يغلط هذا الباب من أصله ولا يجعل المثال صحيحًا ، فيقال : والتحقيق كما قال الشارح أن ( تَجَوْرَبَ ) أصله جَوْرَبَ على وزن فَعْلَلَ وهو رباعي مجرد والواو أصلية وليست بزائدة ، ومصدره جَوْرَبَةً فَعْلَلَةً فليس أصله جَرَبَ لأن فرقًا بين جَرَبَ هذا علة هذا مرض وتَجَوْرَبَ أو جَوْرَبَ هذا لَبِسَ الْجَوْرَبَ

This is known with the scholars of Sarf.  However, some of them err in this pattern with regards to its root and do not give the correct example.  So it is said: and the confirmation is – as the author said – that (tajawraba), the root of it is جورب upon the pattern of فعلل and it is a Four-letter root, bare verb.  The wow و (in جورب ) is a root letter and has not been added2. And its masdar is جوربة on the pattern of فعلل . So its root is not جرب . Because the difference between jaraba (and jawraba) is that this (jarab) is an illness, this is a sickness, while tajawraba and jawraba – this is putting socks on….

Footnotes

1In his explanation of Binaa al Afaal, lesson seven

2The Mulhaq patterns have added letters to make them similar to the patterns they are copying.  So patterns that are mulhaq to dahraja have one letter that is added. Patterns that are mulhaq to tadahraja have two letters added – the taa for reflexivity and another letter that is added to the 3 root letters.  However, jawraba has four root letters, no letter has been added in order for it to be ilhaaq.

Binaa al Afaal 29 Mulhaq to Tadahraja 1 جَلْبَبَ, يُجَلْبِبُ

December 7, 2013

 

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Binaa al Afaal 29

 

 

وَخَمْسَةٌ مِنْهَا لِمُلْحِقِ تَدَحْرَجَ

And there are five of them (the 35 patterns) which are Mulhaq1 to Tadahraja

البَابُ الأَوَّلُ

The first type (of mulhaq to tadahraja) is

تَفَعْلَلَ, يَتَفَعْلَلُ, تَفَعْلُلًا

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

تَجَلْبَبَ, يَتَجَلْبَبُ, تَجَلْبُبًا to dress (oneself)

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has five letters

بِزِيَادَةِ التَّاءِ فِي أَوَّلِهِ

Being increased by a “taa” in the beginning of it

وَحَرْفٍ آخَرَ مِنْ جِنْسِ لَام فِعْلِهِ فِي آخِرِهِ

As well as another letter of the same type as the third root letter in the end of it

وَبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

للَّازِمِ

Is for intransitivity2

نَحْوُ

For example:

تَجَلْبَبَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid got dressed.”3

Translator’s Note:

Adding a “taa” to the front of a verb can change its function from transitivity to reflexivity.4 For example:

جَلْبَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْرًا

Zaid dressed ‘Amr.

(meaning – he dressed someone else)

تَجَلْبَبَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid got dressed.

(meaning – he dressed himself)

Also see the Translator’s Note for Binaa al Afaal 26

Footnotes

1 Mulhaq – a word that is added to to make it resemble another word in the number of letters and vowel markings.  See the Translator’s Note for Binaa al Afaal 20

2The foonote mentions that Al Haazimee said that in one copy (of the text) it said: لِلْمُطَاوَعَةforreflexivity (see the translator’s note for Binaa al Afaal 26 for the definition of reflexivity)

3Or: “Zaid dressed (himself).”

4And al Haazimee said in his explanation of Binaa al Afaal (lesson 7):

لِمُلْحَقِ تَدَحْرَجَ بزيادة حرفين على الثلاثي المجرد ، أحدهما للمطاوعة والثاني يكون للإلحاق

(The author said): which are Mulhaq to Tadahraja

(Al Haazimee): (these verbs are) increased by two letters upon the thulaathee mujarrad (verb).  One (of these letters is added) for reflexivity (i.e. to make it reflexive – that is the “taa” at the beginning).  And the second letter (is added) for Ilhaaq

Binaa al Afaal 28 Third of the Mazeed patterns for 4 letter root verbs اِفْعَلَلَّ, يَفْعَلِلُّ

August 31, 2013

 

 

 

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http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/750eiqy1se/binaa_al_afaal_28.pdf

 

 

 

 

البَابُ الثَّانِي

The second pattern (of the 2nd type of mazeed for four-letter root verbs) is:

 

 

اِفْعَلَلَّ, يَفْعَلِلُّ, اِفْعِلَّالًا

 

 

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

 

اِقْشَعَرَّ, يَقْشَعِرُّ, اِقْشِعْرَارًا

 

 

 

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

 

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى سِتَّةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has six letters

 

 

بِزِيَادَةِ الهَمْزَةِ في أَوَّلُـهِ

Being increased by a hamzah at the beginning

 

 

وَحَرْفٍ آخَرٍ مِنْ جِنْسِ لَامِهِ الثَّانِيَةِ في آخِرِهِ

and (being increased) by another letter which is the same type as the fourth root letter

 

 

وَبِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

 

 

لِمُبَالَغَةِ اللَّازِمِ

Is for intensification for the intransitive verb

 

 

لِأَنَّهُ يُقَالُ

Because it is said:

 

 

قَعْشَرَ جِلْدُ الرَّجُلِ

The man’s skin (qa’shara) shivered

 

 

إِذَا انْتَشَرَ شَعَرُ جِلْدِهِ في الجُمْلَةِ

When the hair of his skin stood on end altogether

 

 

وَيُقَالُ

And it is said

 

 

اِقْشَعَرَّ جِلْدُ الرَّجُلِ

The man’s skin (iqsha’arra) shivered

 

 

إِذَا انْتَشَرَ شَعَرُ جِلْدِهِ مُبَالَغَةً

When the hair of his skin stood on end in a more excessive manner

 

 

Translator’s Note:

 

This verb is used in the Qur’an in the verse:

 

تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُوْدُ الذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ

 

The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it)…” (39:23)1

 

Other verbs on this pattern:

 

اِشْمَأَزَّ

 

2اِطْمَأَنَّ

 

 

 

The first of these is used in the Quran here:

 

وإِذَا ذُكِرَ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ اشْمَأَزَّتْ قُلُوْبُ الذِينَ

لا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِالآخِرَةِ وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ دُوْنِهِ

إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُوْنَ

 

And when Allah Alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter are filled with disgust (from the Oneness of Allah) and when those (whom they obey or worship) besides Him [like all false deities other than Allah, it may be a Messenger like Iesa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary), ‘Uzair (Ezra), an angel, a pious man, a jinn, or any other creature even idols, graves of religious people, saints, priests, monks, etc.] are mentioned, behold, they rejoice!” (39:45)3

 

 

As for اِطْمَأَنَّ then it is used in the Quran in the following places:

(2:260), (3:126), (5:113), (8:10), (13:28), (4:103), (10:7), (22:11)

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

 

 

1Translation of this verse taken from: www.thenoblequran.com

2Both of these verbs taken from Madinah Book 3, chapter 26: http://old.iu.edu.sa/web/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_11.htm

3Translation of this verse taken from: www.thenoblequran.com

Binaa al Afaal 27 Second of the Mazeed patterns for 4 letter root verbs اِفْعَنْلَلَ, يَفْعَنْلِلُ

August 29, 2013

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http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/swwc6ejh1o/binaa_al_afaal_27.pdf

 

النَّوْعُ الثَّانِي

The second type (of the two types of mazeed for four-letter root verbs):

 

وهُوَ مَا زِيْدَ فِيهِ حَرْفَانِ عَلَى الرُّبَاعِيِّ المُجَرَّدِ

And it is the four-letter root bare verb which is increased by two letters

 

وهُوَ بَابَانِ

It has two patterns

 

البَابُ الأَوَّلُ

The first pattern is

 

اِفْعَنْلَلَ, يَفعَنْلِلُ, اِفْعِنْلَالًا

 

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

اِحْرَنْجَمَ, يَحْرَنْجِمُ اِحْرَنْجَامًا

 

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى سِتَّةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has six letters

 

بِزِيَادَةِ الهَمْزَةِ في أَوَّلُـهِ

Being increased by a hamzah at the beginning

 

وَالنُّوْنِ بَيْنَ العَيْنِ وَاللَامِ الأُوْلَى

and (being increased) by a noon between the 2nd and 3rd root letters

 

وَبِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

 

لِلْمُطَاوَعَةِ أَيْضًا

Is also for Reflexivity1

 

نَحْوُ

For example:

 

حَرْجَمْتُ الإِبْلَ فَاحْرَنْجَمَ ذَلِكَ الإِبْلُ

I drove the camels back, so those camels gathered and pressed together.”2

 

 

Translator’s Note:

In the footnote al Haazimee3 said (about the author’s example above):

 

صَوَابُهُ (فَاحْرَنْجَمَتْ تِلْكَ الإِبْلُ) اه

al Haazimee said that what is correct is to use the feminine form of the verb and using the feminine of dhalika which is tilka

 

Another verb on this pattern is:

اِفْرَنْقَعَ4

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

1See the Translator’s Note for Binaa al Afaal 26 for the definition of Reflexivity

2Definition from Hava and Steinglass (see حرجم here: http://ejtaal.net/aa/ )

4This verb taken from Madinah Book 3, chapter 26 http://old.iu.edu.sa/web/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_11.htm

For the definition, search for فرقعhere: http://ejtaal.net/aa/

Binaa al Afaal 26 First of the Mazeed patterns for 4 letter root verbs تَفَعْلَلَ, يَتَفَعْلَلُ

August 29, 2013

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http://k002.kiwi6.com/hotlink/1v7w01r025/binaa_al_afaal_26.pdf

 

 

وَثَلَاثَةٌ مِنْهَا لِمَا زَادَ عَلَى الرُّبَـاعِيِّ المُجَرَّدِ

And there are three of them (the 35 patterns) that increase upon the Four-letter root, bare verb

 

 

وهُوَ عَلَى نَوْعَيْنِ

And they are of two types

 

 

النَّوْعُ الأَّوَّلُ: وهُوَ مَا زِيْدَ فِيْهِ حَرْفٌ وَاحِدٌ عَلَى الرُّبَـاعِيِّ المُجَرَّدِ,

The first type: the Four-letter root, bare verb which is increased by one letter

 

 

 

وهُوَ بَابٌ وَاحِدٌ

It has one pattern

 

 

وَزْنُهُ

Its pattern is

 

 

تَفَعْلَلَ, يَتَفَعْلَلُ, تَفَعْلُلًا

 

 

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

 

تَدَحْرَجَ, يَتَدَحْرَجُ, تَدَحْرُجًا

 

 

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

 

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has five letters

 

 

بِزِيَادَةِ التَّاءِ في أَوَّلِهِ

Being increased by taa at the beginning

 

 

وَبِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

 

 

لِلْمُطَاوَعَةِ

Is for Reflexivity

 

 

نَحْوُ

For example:

 

 

دَحْرَجْتُ الحَجَرَ فَتَدَحْرَجَ ذَلِكَ الحَجَرُ

I rolled the rock, so that rock rolled

 

 

 

Translator’s Note:

 

Reflexivity is similar to intransivity.

The action falls on the one doing it and there is no object.

The difference is that an intransitive verb doesn’t have an object, i.e.:

 

قَفَزَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid jumped.”

 

Qafaza is the verb, Zaid is the Doer (of the verb), and there is no object.

 

If one asks: What about sentences such as:

 

قَفَزَ زَيْدٌ فِي المَلْعَبِ

Zaid jumped at the playground.”

 

and

 

قَفَزَ زَيْدٌ خَلْفَ المَلْعَبِ

Zaid jumped behind the playground.”

 

There are no objects in these sentences either. In the first, في is harful jarr (preposition) and الملعب is ism majroor (and there is no object). In the second, خلف is tharful makaan (adverb of place – telling where the action took place) as well as mudaaf. And الملعب is mudaaf ilaihi and majroor (and there is no object).

 

 

Whereas a reflexive verb is a transitive verb which changes so that the one who received the action becomes the one doing the action (and there is no object). For example:

 

كَسَّرَ زَيْدٌ الزُجَاجَ

Zaid shattered the glass.”

 

Here kassara is a transitive verb, Zaid is the Doer (of the action), and az-Zujaaj is the object (receiving the action)

 

 

تَكَسَّرَ الزُجَاجُ

The glass shattered.”

 

Here the verb takassara is reflexive and the glass, which was previously the object (receiving the action), has now become the Doer (of the action)

 

Breaking apart the example of the author into two sentences:

 

دَحْرَجْتُ الحَجَرَ

I rolled the rock.”

 

Here verb دحرج shows transivity (and transitive verbs need objects). The doer of the action (فاعل) is “I” and the object receiving the action ( مفعول ) is الحجرَ (and al-hajar here has a fat-hah to show that it is receiving the action (and thus is an object)).

 

In the second sentence:

تَدَحْرَجَ الحَجَرُ

The rock rolled.”

 

 

Here the verb تدحرج shows reflexivity which means that what used to be the object receiving the action (the rock) is now the doer of the action. There is no object. The rock didn’t roll something else. It itself rolled (and this is why al-hajar has dammah here – to show that the rock, in this sentence, is the one doing the action)

 

 

Two more verbs upon this pattern:

 

تَرَعْرَعَ to grow up; to flourish1

 

تَمَضْمَضَ to rinse the mouth with water2 (like in wudu)3

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

 

1Definition for this verb found in Hans Wehr under رعرع and in Lane’s Lexicon under رع http://ejtaal.net/aa/

2Definition found in Lane’s Lexicon under مض . http://ejtaal.net/aa/

3Both of these verbs taken from Madinah Book 3, chapter 26 http://old.iu.edu.sa/web/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_11.htm

Binaa al Afaal 25 Mulhaq to Dahraja 6 فَعْلَى, يُفَعْلِيْ

August 27, 2013

 

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البَابُ السَّادِسُ

The sixth type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

فَعْلَى يُفَعْلِي فَعْلَيَةً وَفِعْلَاءً

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

سَلْقَى يُسَلْقِي سَلْقَيَةً وَسِلْقَاءً

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

بِزِيَادَةِ اليَاءِ فِي آخِرِهِ

Being increased by yaa at the end

وَبِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

لِلتَّعْدِيَةِ

is for transivity

نَحْوُ

for example:

سَلْقَيْتُ رَجُلًا

I threw a man down (on his back).”1

وَيُقَالُ لِهَذِهِ السِّتَّةِ: المُلْحَقُ بِالرُّبَاعِيِّ

And these six are called: Mulhaq to the Four-letter root verb

ومَعْنَى الإِلْحَاقِ: اِتِّحَادُ المَصْدَرَيْنِ, أَيْ: المُلْحَقِ والمُلْحِقِ بِهِ

And the meaning of “Ilhaaq” is: bringing together (uniting in pattern) the two masdars, meaning: (the masdars of) the Mulhaq (attached) and (the masdars of) the Mulhiq bihi (one being attached to)2

Translator’s Note:

Ahmad bin Umar al Haazimee3 mentioned in Sharh an-Nathm al Maqsood (12th tape):

سَلَقَ هذا الأصل زيدت عليه الياء سلقيَ

سلق is the origin.  It is increased by yaa (so it becomes) سلقى

And he later mentioned:

زاد بعضهم (فَنْعَلَ) و(فَعْنَلَ)، فعنل نحو قلنس، وفنعل نحو سنبل الزرع

Some of them have added (the patterns) “fan’ala” and “fa’nala”. An example (for the pattern ) فَعْنَلَ is قَلْنَسَ (he put a cap on (someone))

. And an example (for the pattern) فَنْعَلَ is:

سَنْبَلَ الزَّرْعُ “The seed-produce (crop) put forth its سُنْبُل[or ears]”4

(end of that quote)

Another verb upon the pattern of سَلْقَى :

جَعْبَى يُجَعْبِي : to throw down to the ground

Footnotes

1See Edward Lane’s Lexicon for سلق http://ejtaal.net/aa

2The footnote mentions that al Haazimee said regarding the author’s statement here:

هَذَا عَلَى قَوْلٍ, والأَصَحُّ اتِّحَادُ المَصْدَرِ الأَوَّلِ (فَعْلَلَةً) دُوْنَ (فِعْلَالًا) لِعَدَمِ اطِّرَادِهِ

This was (his) statement (in the text), but what is more correct is (that ilhaaq is) the bringing together (uniting in pattern) the first masdar فَعْلَلَةً not (the second) فِعْلَالًا …

More detail on the definition of ilhaaq by al Haazimee in the Translator’s note of Binaa al Afaal 20

4Definition of سَنْبَلَ الزَّرْعُ taken from Edward Lane’s Lexicon ( سنبل ) http://ejtaal.net/aa

 

 

Binaa al Afaal 24 Mulhaq to Dahraja 5 فَعْلَلَ, يُفَعْلِلُ

March 19, 2013

Download the file here: Binaa al Afaal 24

 

البَابُ الخَامِسُ

The fifth type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

فَعْلَلَ يُفَعْلِلُ فَعْلَلَةً وفِعْلَالًا

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

جَلْبَبَ يُجَلْبِبُ جَلْبَبَةً وَجِلْبَابًا

وعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أن يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

بِزِيَادَةِ حَرْفٍ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ جِنْسِ لَامِ فِعْلِهِ فِي آخِرِهِ

Being increased at its end by a letter of the same type as the last root letter

وبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

لِلتَّعْدِيَةِ فَقَطْ

Is for transivity only

نَحْوُ

For example

جَلْبَبَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid dressed.”

إِذَا لَبِسَ الجِلْبَابَ

When he put on his clothing

Translator’s Note:

The footnote in the text of Binaa al Afaal mentions that this example the author brought shows intransivity, not transivity; the correct example (for transivity) being:

جَلْبَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْرًا

Zaid dressed ‘Amr.”

which means:

أَلْبَسَهُ الجِلْبَابَ

he put clothes on him

(More verbs on this pattern)

شَمْلَلَ

Lisaanul Arab and as-Sihhaah feel-Lughah mention that shamlala means:

أَسْرَعَ to hurry1

صَعْرَرَ

Lisaanul Arab2 mentions that sa’rara means:

دَحْرَجَ to roll (something)3

(Footnotes)

1Intransitive

3Transitive

Binaa al Afaal 23 Mulhaq to Dahraja 4 فَعْيَلَ, يُفَعْيِلُ

March 19, 2013

Download the file here: Binaa al Afaal 23

 

البَابُ الرَّابِعُ

The fourth type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

فَعْيَلَ يُفَعْيِلُ فَعْيَلَةً وفِعْيَالًا

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

عَثْيَرَ يُعَثْيِرُ عَثْيَرَةً وعِثْيَارًا

وعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أن يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

بِزِيَادَةِ اليَاءِ بَيْنَ العَيْنِ وَاللَّامِ

Being increased by a yaa ي between the 2nd and 3rd root letters

وبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

لِلَّازِم

Is for intransivity

نَحْوُ

For example

عَثْيَرَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid appeared.”

أَيْ: طَلَعَ

Meaning: He appeared

Translator’s Note: more verbs upon this pattern:

شَرْيَفَ to cut

طَرْيَمَ

An example from al Qamoos al Muheet:

وطَرْيَمَ الماءُ: خَبُثَ، وعَرْمَضَ،

And the water “taryama”: it became polluted or moss-filled

Binaa al Afaal 22 Mulhaq to Dahraja 3 فَعْوَلَ يُفَعْوِلُ

February 20, 2013

 

Download the file here: Binaa al Afaal 22

 

 

البَابُ الثَّالِثُ

The third type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

فَعْوَلَ يُفَعْوِلُ  فَعْوَلَةً  فِعْوَالًا

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

جَهْوَرَ يُجَهْوِرُ جَهْوَرَةً جِهْوَارًا to raise one’s voice

(from حهر )

وَعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

بِزِيَادَةِ الوَاوِ بَيْنَ العَيْنِ وَاللَّامِ

Being increased by a wow و between the 2nd and 3rd root letters

وَبِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

أَيْضًا لِلتَّعْدِيَةِ

Is also for transitive

نَحْوُ

For example

جَهْوَرَ زَيْدٌ القُرْآنَ

Zaid recited Quran in a loud voice.”

Translator’s Note: some other verbs upon this pattern:

دَهْوَرَ to tear down, topple, overthrow1

رَهْوَكَ to become disturbed, agitated2

جَدْوَلَ to put in a list, place in a category3

هَرْوَلَ to hurry4

هَلْوَسَ to hallucinate5

(Footnotes)

1From Hans Wehr

2From al Qamoos al Muheet ( http://baheth.info/ )ورَهْوَكوا: اضْطَرَبُوا

4From Hans Wehr

Binaa al Afaal 21 Mulhaq to Dahraja 2 فَيْعَلَ, يُفَيْعِلُ

September 12, 2012

Download the file here: Binaa al Afaal 21

 

البَابُ الثَّانِي

The second type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

 

فَيْعَلَ يُفَيْعِلُ  فَيْعَلَةً  و فِيْعَالًا

 

مَوْزُوْنُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

بَيْطَرَ يُبَيْطِرُ  بَيْطَرَةً  و بِيْطَارًا to slit open; split

 

وَ عَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

أَنْ يَكُوْنَ مَاضِيْهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

 

بِزِيَادَةِ اليَاءِ بَيْنَ الفَاءِ والعَيْنِ

Being increased by a yaa ي between

the 1st and 2nd root letter

 

وَ بِنَاءُهُ

And its construction

 

لِلتَّعْدِيَةِ فَقَطْ

Is only for the transitive

 

نَحْوُ

For example:

 

بَيْطَرَ زَيْدٌ القَلَمَ

Zaid broke the pen.”

 

أَيْ: شَقَّهُ

Meaning: he tore it apart1

 

 

Translator’s Note:

بيطر can be found in the Hans Wehr dictionary under those four letters. 

بَيْطَرَة is defined as “veterinary science”

and

بَيْطَار is defined as “veterinarian” (pl. is بَيَاطِرَة )

 

الطِّبُّ البَيْطَرِي  – veterinary medicine

الطَّبِيْبُ البَيْطَرِي  – veterinarian

 

The following taken from www.almaany.com:

بيطرَ يبيطر ، بَيْطَرَةً ، فهو مُبيطِر ، والمفعول مُبيطَر:

بيطرَ الدَّابَّةَ عالجها ، شقَّ حافرها ليعالجها .

المعجم: اللغة العربية المعاصر

 

The فَاعِل2 pattern for بيطر is مُبَيْطِر

 

And the مفعول (object pattern) is مُبَيْطَر3

 

He baytara the animal to treat it, (meaning) he split open its hoof to treat it.

 

From the dictionary: the modern Arabic language

 

 

بَيْطَرْتُ ، أُبَيْطِرُ ، بَيْطِرْ ، مصدر بَيْطَرَةٌ .

بَيْطَرَ البَيْطارُ الدَّابَّةَ ” : عالَجَها مِنْ دائِها

…the command form is بَيْطِرْ …

The veterinarian treated the animal”  (meaning):

treated it for its illness

 

The following taken from Sharh Nathm al Maqsood (p.7) by Ahmad ibn Umar al Haazimee:

فنقول: بيطر يُبَيْطِرُ بيطرة وبيطارًا, كما يقال دحرج يُدحرج دحرجةً ودحرجًا

So we say:

بيطر يُبَيْطِرُ بيطرة وبيطارًا

like what is said

دحرج يُدحرج دحرجةً ودحرجًا

 

Other verbs on this pattern:

بَيْقَرَ to hurry, speed up

سَيْطَرَ (على)ا   to dominate; rule (over)

هَيْمَنَ (على)ا to guard, watch (over)

المهيمن؛ قال الفارسي: الهاءُ بدلٌ من الهمزة

والياء مُلْحِقةٌ ببناء مُدَحْرِج؛

…Al-Faarisee4 said (about 5المُهَيْمِن) : The haa ه is

a replacement for the hamzah أ and the yaa ي is mulhiq

to the construction of مُدَحْرِج

 

 

[Footnotes]

1شقّcan have many meanings depending on the context. Some of those listed on www.almaany.com :

– tear something apart forcibly; split – make or become split, cracked, etc – divide or make a hole in something by pulling sharply – split or tear apart violently, split wood or stone, be split – undo the sewing of – crack, break , rend – to rip, tear, rend; be or get torn – to pull apart or to pieces with some force

2The faa’il is the pattern for the one doing the action – the Doer

3Note that the Doer takes a kasrah (under ط ) whereas the object takes a fat-hah

4This quote taken from Lisaanul Arab under أمنfrom this website: http://baheth.info/

5المُهَيْمِن is on the pattern of the Doer for the mulhaq patterns, like the pattern of the Doer for the verb دحرج is مُدَحْرِج . Al Muhaymin is one of the Names of Allah (al Hashr 59:23)

Binaa al Afaal 20 Mulhaq to Dahraja 1 فَوْعَلَ يُفَوْعِلُ

June 28, 2012

Download the file here: Binaa al Afaal 20

وسِتَّةٌ مِنْهَا لِمُلْحِقِ  دَحْرَجَ

And six of these (35 patterns) are mulhaq1 to dahraja

 

ويُقَالُ لِهَذِهِ السِّتِّ

It is said about these six

 

المُلِحَقُ بِالرُّبَاعِيِّ

Mulhaq to the four letter root verb

 

البَاب الأَوَّلُ

The first type (of mulhaq to dahraja)

 

فَوْعَلَ يُفَوْعِلُ  فَوْعَلَةً وفِيْعَالًا

 

مَوْزُونُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

حَوْقَلَ يُحَوْقِلُ  حَوْقَلَةً وحِيْقَالًا to be or become weak

 

وعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

أَنْ يَكُونَ مَاضِيهِ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four letters

 

بِزِيَادَةِ الوَاوِ بَيْنَ الفَاءِ وَالعَيْنِ

Being increased by a wow و between the 1st and 2nd root letter

 

وبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

 

لِلَّازِمِ فَقَطْ

Is only for the intransitive

 

نَحْوُ

For example:

 

حَوْقَلَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid became weak.”

 

Translator’s Note: The following translated from

شرح نظم المقصود

Explained by: Ahmad ibn Umar al Haazimee2

 

قلنا: باب الإلحاق ما حده؟ أن تُجعل كلمةٌ مثل كلمة أخرى. يعني تكون كلمة مساوية لكلمة أخرى بسبب زيادة حرفٍ أو أكثر، لِمَ؟ قالوا: من أجل أن يُتصرف في الكلمة المُلحقة مثل تصاريف الكلمة المُلحق بها، أن يُزاد في كلمة لتكون مثل كلمة أخرى

We say: The Ilhaaq (adding), what is it? It is that one word is made to look like another word.  Meaning, a word becomes equal to another word by adding one or more letters.  Why?  They say: So that the word that is being added to can have patterns derived from it like the word that it is made to resemble.  So it is to add (one or more letters) to a word to make it like another word….3

 

لماذا؟ قالوا: ننظر في الكلمة المُلحقة فنزيدُ عليها حرفًا أو حرفين لتصير مساوية لكلمة أخرى، فيحصل التساوي في عدد الحروف، وفي الحركات المعينة وفي السكنات، وقلنا: شرطه: اتحاد المصدرين، لابد  اتحاد المصدرين

Why? They say: We look at the Mulhaq word and we add to it one or two letters so that it becomes equal to another word.  So it becomes equal to another word in the number of letters it has and in its vowel markings.  We say: the condition is that the two masdars are brought together.   It is necessary to bring the two masdars together….

 

واكتفينا به هو النوع الأول: أن يُزاد على الثلاثي حرفٌ واحد يصير بهذا الحرف موازنًا ومساويًا لدحرج. دحرج هذا رباعي وأصوله أربعة، إذًا ليس من الرباعي المزيد، زيد على الثلاثي حرفٌ واحد من أجل أن يصير مساويًا لدحرج فَعْلَلَ، في ماذا؟ في عدد الحروف؛ لأنه ثُلاثي فزيد عليه حرفٌ فصار أربعة، أيضًا موازيًا لفَعْلَلَ في الحركات والسكنات أيضًا، شرطه الأصلي أن يكون متحدًا معه في المصدر، أن يكون مصدر المُلحق موازنًا لمصدر الملحق به دحرج، دَحْرَجَ له مصدران دحرج يُدحرج دحرجةً ودحراجًا، قلنا: الذي يشترط أن يكون الملحق موازنًا أو موافقًا لمصدر الملحقِ به الأول أو الثاني؟ الأول فَعْلَلَ

And we are sufficed with the first type: the three letter root verb which is increased by one letter to make it equal to دحرج . Dahraja is a Four letter root verb which is not increased upon4. So the three letter root verb is increased by one letter (to make it seem like it is a four letter root like dahraja) to make it equal to the pattern of dahraja which is fa’lala فَعْلَلَ . In what areas is it equal to dahraja?  In the number of letters because when a three letter root verb has a letter added to it, it becomes four letters5. It is also equal to dahraja in the vowel markings.  The foundational condition (for it being mulhaq) is that the verb is united with dahraja in the masdar.  That the masdar of the mulhaq (the verb which is added to) is equal to the masdar of the mulhaq bihi (verb the mulhaq is made to resemble, in this case:) dahraja.  Dahraja has two masdars: دَحْرَجَة and دِحْرَاج .6 We say: It is a condition that one of the masdars of the mulhaq be upon the same pattern as the masdar of the mulhaq bihi7, so must it be on the pattern of the first masdar (فَعْلَلَة ) or the second (فِعْلَال )? It must be the first…..

 

ولكن الذي يُشترط هو المصدر الأول فَعْلَلَ، مثالُ ذلك قالوا: جلْبَبَ أصله جلب؛ جلب هذا فعلٌ ماضي ثُلاثي أتى بشيء من خارج ليُباع من بلدٍ لآخر، جلب زيدت عليه الباء صار جلبب على وزن فَعْلَلَ، إذًا صار جلبب كدحرج، نقول: دحرج فعلٌ ماضي جلبب فعلٌ ماضي، دحرج المضارع منه يُدحرِج يُفَعْلِلُ، إذًا المضارع من جلبب يُجَلْبِبُ، لماذا قلنا المضارع من جلبب يجلبب؟ لأننا زدنا في جلب من أجل أن يكون المضارع من جلبب موازنًا ليدحرج، كذلك الأمر جَلبِب دَحرِج، المصدر من دحرج فعللة، إذًا يأتي المصدر من جَلْبَبَ جَلْبَبةً، هل يأتي جِلْبَابَ؟ نعم يأتي جِلْبَابَ سُمع هكذا جلبب يجلببُ جلببة وجلبابًا، إذًا سمع فيه المصدر الأول، وسُمع فيه المصدر الثاني، مثل ما يقال دحرج يُدحرجُ دحرجةً ودحراجًا، شملل يُشمللُ شمللةً وشملالًا.

What is conditional is that it resembles the first masdar ( فعللة ) An example of that is: جَلْبَبَ8 whose root is جلب . جلب is a three letter root past tense verb meaning – to bring something from a foreign land to be sold from one place to another9. Jalaba is increased by (one letter) baa ب so that it becomes جَلْبَبَ which is upon the pattern of فعلل so that جلبب is now like دحرج . We say: Dahraja is the past tense10 and likewise jalbaba is the past tense (infinitive).  The present tense for دَحْرَجَ is يُدَحْرِجُ upon the pattern يُفَعْلِلُ and likewise the present tense of جَلْبَبَ is يُجَلْبِبُ . Why did we say that the present tense of jalbaba is yujalbibu? Because we have increased the verb جلب so that the conjugation of جلبب is upon the same pattern as دحرج . Likewise, the command form of jalbaba is on the same pattern as dahraja.  The masdar of dahraja is on the pattern of فَعْلَلَة so the masdar of jalbaba is also ( on this pattern ) جَلْبَبَة

Is جِلْبَاب the second masdar (like دِحْرَاح) ?  Yes, the patterns for the past tense, present tense, and masdars are like this: جَلْبَبَ, يُجَلْبِبُ, جَلْبَبَة و جِلْبَاب

Its first and second masdars by common accepted usage are jalbaba and jilbaab.  This is similar to dahraja

 دَحْرَجَ, يُدَحْرِجُ, دَحْرَجَة ودِحْرَاج and

 

shamlala11 شَمْلَلَ, يُشَمْلِلُ, شَمْلَلَة وشِمْلَال

 

الوزن الأول قلنا: (فَوْعَلَ)، قلنا: فوعل مثال حوقل، حوقل زيد فيه أصله حقل من الضعف وليس حوقل اختصار لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله تلك شيءٌ آخر، حوقل أصلها حقل زيدت عليه الواو بين الفاء والعين فصار حوقل على وزن فعلل، إذًا صار موازنًا لدحرج فنأتي بالفعل المضارع والمصدر من حوقل كما نأتي به من دحرج، حوقل يحوقِل حوقلةً وحيقالًا، أصلها حوقالًا سكنت الواو وكُسِر ما قبلها فقلبت الواو ياءً فصار حيقالًا، حوقل يحوقل حوقلة وحيقالًا.

The first pattern (of mulhaq to four letter root bare verbs) we said was فَوْعَلَ . We said that an example of a verb on this pattern is حَوْقَلَ . Hawqala is increased (by one letter) from its root حَقَلَ which is to be or become weak.  And the meaning of حوقل is not limited to saying – لا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلَّا بِاللهِ (there is neither might nor power except with Allah) – this is something different12. So the root of حوقل is حقل which was increased by one letter – wow و – which was put between the first and second root letters so that haqala became حوقل which is now upon the pattern of فعلل .  So it came to be upon the same pattern as دحرج . We take the present tense verb form and masdar for حَوْقَلَ from dahraja

 دَحْرَجَ: حَوْقَلَ, يُحَوْقِلُ, حَوْقَلَة وحِيْقَال

 

The root of حيقال is حِوْقَال with sukoon on the wow and kasrah on the letter before wow.  So the wow و was changed to yaa ي13 and it became instead حِيْقَال .

حَوْقَلَ, يُحَوْقِلُ, حَوْقَلَة وحِيْقَال

 

Other verbs upon this pattern:

14عَوْلَمَ to globalize

جَوْرَبَ to put socks on (someone else)15

حَوْزَقَ to hiccup16

1Mulhaq – a word that is added to to make it resemble another word in the number of letters and vowel markings.  See the Translator’s Note at the end

2The document mentions that this is from the 12th tape

3Some parts are skipped

4It is mujarrad (bare) – not being increased by any extra letters

5But it is not a four letter root

6The masdar doesnt have to be listed in the accusative case (mansoob)

7دحرج has two masdars as was previously mentioned

8جلبب is on from the fifth mulhaq form for the four letter root bare verb (this example will be seen again when speaking about the fifth type of mulhaq to a verb on the pattern of dahraja)

9There are other meanings to the verb.

10For the 3rd person, masculine, singular (which is also the infinitive form)

11This is on the same pattern as جلبب which is the fifth mulhaq pattern made to resemble a four letter root, bare verb

( like دحرج )

12حوقل in this sense is a compound word.

See: http://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2012/06/28/introduction-to-compound-words/

13This is normally what happens when a wow with sukoon وْ is preceeded by a kasrah – the wow with sukoon is changed to يْ yaa with sukoon instead.  Another example of this is مِيْلَاد“birth” – which is from the verb  وَلَدَ which means to have children or to be born.  So instead of it being مِوْلاد the wow changes to yaa and it becomes مِيْلاد .  In the word مَوْلِد whose pattern signifies the place and time (of birth), there is no need to change anything because the wow with sukoon is not preceeded by a kasrah .  Another example is in verse 3:194

14Definition from http://www.almaany.com/

15Definition from Lisaan al Arab – http://baheth.info/ .  To make the verb intransitive (something you do to yourself or you yourself do ), add a taa ت to jawraba —> تَجَوْرَبَ

16From al Mawrid al Quareeb, though it is found in the online dictionaries as well.

Binaa al Afaal 19 fa’lala, yufa’lilu

June 23, 2012

This is the first of the four letter root patterns and it is mujarrad (bare/no added letters).

Download the file for the 19th pattern mentioned in Binaa al Af’aal here:   Binaa al Afaal 19

ووَاحِدٌ مِنْهَا لِلرُّبَاعِيِّ المُجَرَّدِ وهو بَابٌ وَاحِدٌ

And one of the verb patterns is the four letter root mujarrad (bare)1. And it is only one pattern.

 

 

وَزْنُهُ

Its pattern is

 

 

فَعْلَلَ يُفَعْلِلُ  فَعْلَلَةً وفِعْلَالًا

 

 

مَوْزُونُهُ

An example of a verb on this pattern

 

 

دَحْرَجَ يُدَحْرِجُ  دَحْرَجَةً ودِحْرَاجًا to roll

 

 

وعَلَامَتُهُ

And the sign (that a verb is of this type)

 

أَنْ يَكُونَ مَاضِيهِ على أَرْبَعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ

Is that the past tense has four (root) letters

 

بِأَنْ يَكُونَ جَمِيعُ حُرُوفِهِ أَصْلِيَّةً

Because all four of its letters are root letters

 

وبِنَاؤُهُ

And its construction

 

لِلتَّعْدِيَةِ غَالِبًا

Is for transivity most of the time

 

وقَدْ يَكُونُ لَأزِمًا

It may also be intransitive

 

مِثَالُ المُتَعَدِّي نَحْوُ

An example of a transitive verb on this pattern is:

 

دَحْرَجَ زَيْدٌ الحَجَرَ

Zaid rolled the rock.”

 

ومِثَالُ اللَّازِمِ نَحْوُ

And an example of an intransitive verb on this pattern is:

 

2دَرْبَخَ زَيْدٌ

Zaid bowed.”

 

Translator’s Note:  More verbs upon this pattern include:

 

حَصْحَصَ

(see 12:51)

 

وَسْوَسَ

(see 7:20 )

 

زَلْزَلَ

(see 99:13 )4

 

بَعْثَرَ

(see 100:95 )

 

1Bare – meaning, it has no added letters to the root.  A bare four letter root verb is for example – هَرْوَلَ (it is found in Hans Wehr under these four letters because all are root letters) and a mazeed (by one letter) would be – تَمَضْمَضَ and (by two letters)  اِطْمَأَنَّ

2In the footnote: دَرْبَخَ أَيْ  أَصْغَى وتَذَلَّلَ  ودربخ الرجلُ إذا طَأْطَأَ رَأْسَهُ وبَسَطَ ظَهْرَهُ , انطر اللسان مادة دربجا

Darbakha means to be attentive and to humble oneself.  And the man darbakha when he bowed his head and bent his back.  See Lisaan ul Arab, definition of darbakha (found online here: http://baheth.info/ )

3زُلْزِلَتْ is the passive form for the past tense (and is feminine singular)

4These above three verbs:  حصحص, وسوس, زلزل are muda’af مُضَعَّف for four letter roots رباعي

5Passive, past tense